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Оффлайн Лена Беспалова

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« Ответ #30 : 24 Апрель 2015, 12:49:58 »
Ну то что дисбаланс некоторых витаминов и микроэлементов влияет на человеческое настроение меня учили еще в дикой молодости. И я почти уверена, что у собак это тоже имеет место быть.
Но с рыбьим и шоколадкой было бы конечно удобней. ))

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« Ответ #31 : 28 Апрель 2015, 14:23:09 »
Construction in Relation to Movement

Karen Hedberg


   This article is an attempt to give a shortened version about construction as it relates to movement of the dog.  The whys and wherefores of the main points are discussed. Should you wish to pursue this further, there are several very good books that explain construction and movement in greater detail.

    Before we analyse the points of the dog, an overall view of the animal must first be obtained. How does the animal appear to you? Does it look like a representative of its breed? Is it balanced in its angulations front to rear? When moving, is your impression one of all parts flowing harmoniously, or three dogs trying to move at the one time?

    To assess soundness of construction and movement, it is important to understand the 'bits' that make up the dog. Every dog has the same type and number of bones (apart from length of tail) but the relative lengths of the bones give the great variation of appearance to the breeds. There are ideal proportions written down for each breed (the 'standard'), but the basic bone structure is similar. Ideal proportions for each breed usually relate to two main areas:- 1. height (at the wither) to length (from the point of the chest or prosternum to the rear edge of the pelvis or ischium) and 2. depth of chest (wither to the lower edge of the chest) to length of leg (usually measured from the point of the elbow to the ground). The proportions combined with the angulations that are ideal for the breed combine to produce the characteristic movement of the breed.

 

Think of the dog as a system of levers and pulleys. The back acts as a bridge connecting the front and rear assemblies. If the ratio of the lengths of the bones of the front and rear are even, then the dog is balanced for that breed. The ideal lengths vary between breeds, but the principle always holds.

When trying to justify why relative lengths of different bones give better movement than others, one can go quite insane if you try to fit all breeds of dog to the one ideal. Having bred German Shepherds, my idea of an ideal construction is very different to someone with a toy dog or a Greyhound. The best way to look at dog construction is through function. What is the function of the breed, what is the characteristic movement for that breed and so on.

 

Movement and construction by function

To try to group different construction and movement 'styles', I would divide dogs into three broad categories:-

1. The walking or strutting dog, e.g. Fox Terrier.

2. The trotting dog, e.g. the German Shepherd.

3. The galloping dog, e.g. the Greyhound.

 

    All the breeds range between these three types depending on size, function and individual breed selection characteristics eg. Such as the need to work in muddy conditions in the Belgian Shepherds, others are required to be exceptionally flexible and nimble eg the Kelpie.

 

Type 1 - the walking or strutting breeds. These breeds have a short bouncy action, where quite often the forequarter assembly is steep, they often have short backs with a reasonable turn of hindquarter for agility. The pasterns are often short and upright, usually asking for short tight feet. An example of this is the Fox Terrier.



Type 2 - the trotting breeds. These breeds are used where a tireless, and preferably economical trotting action is called for. Many of the working breeds fit into this category, with differences mostly in the forequarter where added nimbleness is asked for, eg. the Collie breeds, which are lighter boned and more open in angulation than the German Shepherd. The Shepherd is not being asked to be especially nimble, rather a tireless worker at its natural gait, the trot. The ideal German Shepherd dog is one that covers the maximum amount of ground with the minimum amount of effort, ie. fewer steps, translating to good reach and drive. Pasterns are longer and more sloping, giving better spring or flexibility, feet toe length medium to short, preferably with tight ligaments.



Type 3 - the galloping breeds. These breeds are used where great turns of speed are needed. This type is mostly found in the hunting dogs, particularly in the sight hounds e.g. Greyhounds. Here the maximum amount of thrust comes from longer, very powerful and well muscled hindquarters which push the dog up and stretch well forwards with very mobile, muscular shoulders, and very flexible pasterns. The feet have medium to long toes with “flatter” but still very flexible toes.



Forequarter Angulation and Movement


  This is made up of several major components, being placement of shoulder, height at the wither, relative lengths of the shoulder blade, upper arm, foreleg and pastern – these all combine to determine the length of reach of the dog. The effectiveness of the reach will ultimately also be affected by the chest formation (which can alter with maturity), the strength and effectiveness of the hindquarter drive as it is transmitted up and forward along the back. With good balance of angulation, both reach and drive should be equally effective.

 

Reach

Length of reach of the forequarter assembly is determined by the lay of the shoulder blade, the relative lengths of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the humerus (upper arm), the length of foreleg, and the 'arc of movement' that the foreleg moves through.

 

Placement of Shoulder Blade

The definitions or terms used in this area are:

Well laid back - with the prosternum prominent (ie. visible in front of the point of shoulder when viewed from the side), which allows for maximum arc of movement from the top of the shoulder blade.

Upright (steep) - lacking prosternum – level with the point of shoulder or not visible when viewed from the side. The effect on movement at the trot is one of loose elbows (or lack of support by the chest) when seen coming towards one.



 The wither is the area along the top of the shoulder blades, which obviously in turn relates to the placement of the shoulder. Most breeds call for a prominent or well developed wither - which can have a different meaning between breeds. When viewing the dog from the side, the withers should be higher than the middle of the back (in most breeds – lower in the OESD).
  The height of wither is determined by how high the top of the shoulder blades are relative to the top of the dorsal spines of the vertebrae of the back.

High withers - the tops of the shoulder blades are higher than the top of the dorsal spines - this obviously gives the tightest muscling over the top of the shoulder blades (as there are shorter muscles), in turn giving firmer movement throughout the forequarter. Seen from the side the wither is higher than the middle of the back.



 Level withers - where the top of the dorsal vertebrae are level with the top of the dorsal spines. This gives more room for movement over the withers, allowing the shoulder to drop slightly in movement. Viewed from the side the wither is level with the back.
Flat withers (low) - the top of the shoulder blades are lower than the top of the dorsal spines. This allows a large degree of laxity during movement, generally causing falling on the forequarter. Viewed from the side the wither is lower than the middle of the back.

   ** If there is balanced movement, the wither should remain slightly above the line of the back during movement, hence the term “maintained a good (or high) wither at all speeds while gaiting”

 

  Forequarter angulation

Diagrams of the good and the ugly.

1. Very good forequarter angulation, with a maximum shoulder angle of 90’ ie. very good lay back of shoulder and very good length and lay of upper arm. This gives maximum length and reach.

2. Most commonly seen shoulder angulation of 105’, with reasonable lay of shoulder and good length of upper arm, but slightly steep in placement - typical of a trotting breed. Good to very good reach.

3. Good layback of shoulder blade, but short steep upper arm, giving a restricted reach. Angle 120’. With a short steep upper arm, one is more likely to see a rather hackneyed gait in front.



4. Steeper placement of shoulder, but good length of upper arm. 120’ angle is typical of galloping breeds, slightly restricted in reach during the walk, but at  the  trot or gallop, the shoulder blade top moves backwards allowing for greater reach.
  **In summary, the longer the upper arm (humerus), the better the reach, regardless of the length and lay of the shoulder blade.

 

 Length of foreleg – each breed usually a fairly definite ratio of the length of foreleg relative to the height at wither and the depth of chest. In the GSD, this should ideally be 45% chest to 55% leg, ie. more leg than chest. Adult bitches may approach 50/50 by full maturity. Too short in foreleg, and or too deep in chest, both conditions detract from the ideal and will restrict the length of reach. Where dogs are excessively deep in chest, they tend to tire more easily when gaited for any length of time.

 

Pasterns.

  The pasterns act as the cushioning device for the load on the front legs during movement.

    Short, upright pasterns have a reduced flexibility, and are commonly seen in the terrier breeds and those where a short bouncy action is called for.

   Good medium length and angle of pastern (15’-20’) will allow great spring and flexibility of the pastern, reflected in a smoother gait as seen in the German Shepherd and the sight hounds.

   Too long in pastern or too great an angle in relation to the foreleg, will result in loss of spring, over extension of the ligaments and a looseness (paddling effect) when viewed from front-on during movement. If severe, the dog will fall on the forehand.

 

Length of body – this is made up of several sections, and if correctly measured, is done so from the front of the prosternum to the end of the pelvis (the ischium). It is made up of the rib cage, the loin and the width of the hindquarter.

   Rib cage – this area is from the prosternum in the front to the back of the ribs. It protects the heart and lungs, as well as the liver and stomach more caudally. Along the top of the rib cage is considered the true “back” and this extends from the wither to the loin. {*Many people when describing the back do so from the wither to the croup, or conversely, refer to the “backline or “topline” as a unit from the wither to the base of tail.}

   Good length of rib – is considered a virtue in most breeds, allowing for greater lung room and endurance. “Well ribbed back” is a term used to highlight a good length of rib. Too short a rib cage – is generally considered undesirable as is too excessive a tuck up (“herring gutted”)

   Spring of rib Most breeds ask for a good spring of rib, so as to allow for maximum lung expansion when needed, but other breeds may deem it attractive to be barrel ribbed, eg. the British Bulldog, and some go for the deep narrow chest, eg. the Borzoi.

  The spring of rib when viewed from the front will affect the stance of the dog (see diagrams below).

 The chest- generally refers to the forward section of the rib cage and must be looked at both from the front to see spring of rib and the side to see the depth – generally it should reach to the elbows when viewed from the side. If the chest is too shallow (side view) or too narrow (when view from the front), both result with insufficient support for the elbows, and looseness of elbows will result. Forward placement of the shoulders will similarly result in insufficient support for the elbows during movement.

  Chests will with maturity, “drop” and broaden, and the elbows will become firmer. Too much chest development can result in excessive depth of chest relative to height and this will start to cause restrictions in reach and reduction in endurance. This can be seen more commonly in bitches after one or two litters. Narrow deep chested dogs have a higher risk of being affected by bloat as they get older.

  From the side, the placement of shoulder relative to the chest becomes more obvious. Well laid back shoulder blade will generally have a good (more prominent) prosternum. Forward placed or steep shoulder blades have very little or no prosternum visible from the side view.

Stance in front (average breeds) - Diagrams

1. Correct - the legs drop straight to the ground. Elbows close to the sides of the chest, should move with tight elbows.

2. Barrel ribbed - too wide - wide front movement - elbows out, feet in, paddling effect, 'loose at elbows' and/or “out at elbow”

3. Slab sided - stands too narrow, elbows in, feet out (“east west”), looseness of elbow. Shallow chested dogs are similarly affected.



 Back
  The back is an area which many people overlook as it seems to be so obvious that it connects the back end to the front. The back is, in effect, a bridge between the two halves of the dog, and the strongest bridge has a slight rise over its apex. The ideal back is firm in movement. Movement of the back will cause loss of forward drive.

  The length of back can also affect movement. If it is too short, the movement is restricted, and the dog is unable to drive properly; if it is too long, there will be bounce and loss of drive (see section on coupling).

  The overall “backline” or “topline” where one is referring to the outline from the wither to the tail base can be greatly affected by the strength of ligamentation as well as the relative lengths of the back, loin and croup.

 

 

Roached backs -  **If the middle of the back is arching up higher than the wither during movement, this is termed a roached back and is incorrect in most breeds.

    Some breeds, notably GSD’s can be quite strongly ligamented over the back when young, and while standing may have a “roached” appearance. Additionally, many handlers unfortunately create this impression by setting puppies up in exaggerated stances. During movement, most of this rise should disappear. This effect should settle by 12-24 months, and while a firm back during movement is desirable, excessive roaching during movement even in the younger classes is not desirable.

  As dogs age (particularly over 6 years of age), the ligaments stretch, loose some firmness, and the back transmission will suffer.

 

The loin. – this refers to the section from the end of the rib cage to the wing of the pelvis and consists of the lumber vertebrae. Most standards call for well developed muscling in this area, which generally should translate in movement to firm ligaments over this section of the backline.

  There is considerable variation between breeds as to what is considered ideal length. The length of loin or “the coupling” is what creates most of the impression of length of body when considering the height to length proportions of a dog. Forward placed or steep shoulders can also give an impression of greater length of body.

Dogs which are too short in the coupling cannot extend properly while gaiting. Tall well angulated dogs that are short coupled cannot get their hindquarters under themselves sufficiently to drive effectively from their hocks. Most of the thrust of movement goes upwards, not forwards. Dogs which are too long in the coupling dissipate much of the forward drive along the back, particularly if the ligaments of the back are soft. The result is a back which bounces during movement.

 

1. Good length of coupling - the drive is transmitted with minimal loss along the back (providing the ligamentation is good).

2. Too short in coupling, can if well angulated result in a restriction of reach and drive, as much of the drive is transmitted up and over the back. If this is combined with a low or level wither, the effect seen is “falling on the forehand” – a desired trait in the OESD.



3. Too long in the coupling, where the drive is lost in the centre of the back due to the length, causing a bouncing movement. If combined with soft ligaments, the effect can produce a “swamp” or “dip back”.
 

Croup

   The croup is the area from where the “wing” or front edge of the pelvis starts to the base of the tail. The length and angle of the croup affects the eventual width of thigh as seen from the side. While there are only small relative variations in the actual length of pelvis’ within a breed (bar a small variation for male versus female), the angle of the croup and the set of tail can very definitely visually alter the length seen when judging.

   The angle of the croup affects the angle at which the hindquarter functions. Some believe that the croup has little effect, but most agree that too short and steep a croup, results in loss of hindquarter drive through an upwards rather than forwards motion. Ideally, a croup should be of good length and laid at a gentle angle to the back so that the drive up through the hindquarter flows forwards along the back without a break. A croup that is too short and in particular, too steep will considerably reduce the arc of movement that is possible from the hindquarter, resulting in restrictions in drive.

 

1. At 40’- too steep, where the angle of drive is too high, causing the back to rise during movement. Restricted in rear swing of the hindquarter due to the steep croup.

2. At 22’- croup good, the angle of drive is not too steep, where the thrust is forwards along the back. Good swing of the hindquarter (both forwards and backwards) is allowed by the croup.

3. At 10’ - croup too flat, angle of drive is lower than the back, and considerable thrust is lost as it is not transmitted forwards. The forward reach of the hindquarter is slightly restricted.

 

 The angle of the croup should ideally flow in smooth line from the backline, allowing for maximum transmission of drive along the back. The ideal angle of the croup would be between 20’-30’ (from the line of the back). This variation is needed to allow for differences in lengths of backs and croups. The stronger back would probably tend to the 30’, whereas the longer back would tend to the 20’. The steeper the angle of the croup, the more it will affect the forward motion of the drive or hindquarter thrust.

  The angle of the croup can change with age – young dogs with strong (dare we say slightly roached backs) may be rather steep in the croup, as the back settles down, so the angle of the croup may improve (seen around 12-24 months).

 

Hindquarter angulation and movement.

   As with the forequarter, the relative lengths and angles of the croup, upper and lower thigh and the length of hock with greatly affect the drive and its effectiveness.

   Correct hindquarter angulation must be seen relative to what is desired in the breed, relative to its characteristic movement. This is best be assessed from the side when the hind leg is positioned so that the hock is perpendicular to the ground.

    The ideal angulation is one where the length of the femur is equal to the length of tibia/fibula (lower thigh). The longer both the femur and tibia/fibula are, the greater the turn of stifle for that breed. A quick way to check for equal lengths of femur and tibia is to raise the hock (perpendicularly, of course) up to the end of the pelvis. If the point of the hock extends beyond the rear edge of the pelvis, then the tibia is too long in relation to the femur. Rarely if ever is the femur too long.

 

Over angulation. This occurs when the length of the lower thigh is too long in the relation to the length of femur or upper thigh. This results in the hock (when perpendicular) being placed considerably further behind a line dropped behind the pelvis than when the lengths are equal. (The term over angulation also occasionally applies to those breeds with well-turned stifles, eg. the German Shepherd.)



 The longer the lower thigh is in relation to the length of femur, the greater the amount of turn of stifle. The longer the hock in combination with a longer lower thigh, the more unstable the hock during movement. Shorter hocks will give greater stability, particularly where there is a longer lower thigh.
 

1. Short femur, long lower thigh, long hock.

2. Short femur, long lower thigh, short hock.

3. Short femur, longer lower thigh, where the point of the hock is behind the end of the pelvis when raised perpendicular from the ground.

 

Insufficient angulation (straight stifled). This is desired in some breeds, excessively so in the Chow Chow. It is, however, not a good direction to follow due to the increasing instability of the knee as the leg becomes straighter, placing more and more stress on the knee during exercise.



The knee is the major pivotal joint of the hindquarters and it takes all the strain of braking and twisting. Hock problems can be present as they become very upright, and will occasionally even bend forwards ('double jointed').
Hindquarter too steep, eg. the Chow Chow - In a hindquarter lacking angulation, the hock when perpendicular does not extend behind the end of the pelvis.

 

Stifle

   The knee (or stifle joint). This is (from side to side) not as stable as is the human knee which is a lot wider. Due to this narrowness and in conjunction with a straight stifle (lack of good turn at the knee), the knee cap (the patella) can become unstable, and patella luxation may occur. Patella luxation is when the knee cap 'jumps' out of its groove and the dog cannot bear proper weight on the leg. This condition is considered genetic in origin, particularly so in toy breeds, but can also develop after accidents involving the ligaments of the knee. If the patella groove is deep, then patella luxation is less likely to occur.

   The relative instability of a straighter stifle can cause the larger breeds to be more prone to damaging the anterior cruciate ligament - like a human football injury. This type of injury is not however, totally confined to those dogs with straighter stifles. It can occur in any hyperactive dog.

Due to the abnormal stance from a straight stifle, problems associated from excessive wear of the cartilages of both the hocks and knees can occur in the heavier breeds, particularly Rottweilers. This condition is often associated with overweight young dogs.

 

Hocks.

    Tightness and firmness of the hocks during movement is desirable. The stability of the hocks is related to the relative lengths of all three sections - the upper thigh (femur), lower thigh (tibia/fibula), and the hock. Too long a hock, particularly when accompanied by a long lower thigh, allows for considerable instability of the hindquarter drive. Some breeds may stand cow hocked due to more angulation of the hindquarter eg. German Shepherds, but during their natural gait (the trot), the hocks should be firm and remain upright.

 

 

   Length of hock relative to end size in puppies. Long hocks tend to go with increased size of the adult dog and a straighter hindquarter. Shorter hocks are more desirable in most breeds as they often go with better turn of stifle and greater firmness of hocks, therefore better transmission of drive. (*This is well worth noticing when purchasing a puppy, particularly in breeds with a top size limit of adults.)

 

 Balance andTransmission

    Balance - With balanced angulation both front and rear, and moving with a firm back; a dog of moderately good construction can generally out move a dog with just a good front, or just a good rear end. Ideally both fore and hindquarter angulation and construction should be such that the reach and drive are of equal power and effectiveness – inbalance will result in restrictions and a failure to maintain an even flowing gait.

   Transmission is the force generated from the hindquarter thrust (or drive), which transmits along the back pushing the forequarter forward. The forequarter movement is more of a reaching, grabbing movement; and the hindquarter thrust allows maximum use of the forequarter construction.

    If the back  and the croup are good, then the transmission of the drive from the hindquarter through the back into the forequarter, will be transmitted smoothly and without loss of power.

    If the back is too soft or too long  and then the transmission forward is somewhat dissipated and the overall picture is one of a reduced 'flow', ie. the back will bounce around losing much of its power. Dogs with backs that are too short or too roached are similarly affected by a reduced transmission of power.

 

   If there is good hindquarter construction and poor forequarter construction, the hindquarter drive tends to overrun the forequarter and so create the impression of 'running down hill' or falling on the forehand. The transmission is up through the back, then down, ie. a pounding effect, as the drive is excessive in relation to what the front can achieve.

  If there is good forequarter construction and poor hindquarter construction, the hindquarter drive is insufficient to move the forequarter properly and consequently movement is restricted both front and rear and the hocks do not reach under the dog to achieve a good drive.



With balanced fore and hindquarter angulation, with good proportions and firm ligaments, the well constructed dog should approach the ideal movement for that breed.
 

  A well constructed dog that has balanced movement is a joy to watch, the reach and drive are equally effective, and the dog seems to flow effortlessly around the ring with minimal effort and maximum ground cover. Unfortunately, it can be a rare event as well!!!


Оффлайн Alveig

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« Ответ #32 : 27 Май 2015, 08:37:37 »
не с Фб, но занятно почитать...а куда положить не знаю...положу тут

Early Neurological Stimulation
By 
Dr. Carmen L. Battaglia
 
 
Surprising as it may seem, it isn't capacity that explains the differences that exist
between individuals because most seem to have far more capacity than they will ever
use.  The differences that exist between individuals seem to be related to something else. 
The ones who achieve and outperform others s eem to have within themselves the ability
to use hidden resources.  In other words, it's what they are able to do with what they
have that makes the difference.
In many animal breeding programs, the entire  process of selection and management is
founded on the belief that perfor mance is inherited.  Attempts to analyze the genetics of
performance in a systematic way have involved some distinguished names such as
Charles Darwin and Francis Galton.  But it has only been in recent decades that good
estimates of heritability of performan ce have been based on adequate data. 
Cunningham, (1991) in his study of horses, found that only by using Timeform data,
and measuring groups of half brothers  and half sisters could good estimates of
performance be determined.  His data show s that performance for speed is about 35%
heritable.  In other words, only about 35% of all the variation that is observed in track
performance is controlled by heritable factors, the remaining 65% is attributable to
other influences, such as training, management and nutrition.  Cunningham's work
while limited to horses, provides a good basis for understanding how much breeders can
attribute to the genetics and the pedigrees.
Researchers have studied these phenomena and have looked for new ways to stimulate
individuals in order to improve their natura l abilities.  Some of the methods discovered
have produced life long lasting effects.  Today many of the differences between
individuals can now be explained by th e use of early stimulation methods.
Introduction
 
Man for centuries has tried various methods to improve performance.  Some of the
methods have stood the test of time, others have not.  Those who first conducted
research on this topic believed that the period of early age was a most important time
for stimulation because of its rapid growth and development.  Today, we know that
early life is a time when the physical immaturity of an organism is susceptible and
responsive to a restricted but important class  of stimuli.  Because of its importance
many studies have focused their efforts on the first few months of life.
Newborn pups are uniquely differe nt from adults in several respects.  When born, their
eyes are closed and their digestive system  has a limited capacity requiring periodic
stimulation by their dam who ro utinely licks them in order to promote digestion.  At
this age they are only able to smell, suck, and crawl.  Body temperature is maintained
by snuggling close to their mother or by cra wling into piles with other littermates. 
During these first few weeks of immobility, researchers noted that these immature and
under-developed canines are sensitive to a restricted class of stimuli which includes
thermal and tactile stimulatio n, motion and locomotion.
Other mammals such as mice and rats are also born with limitations, and they also have
been found to demonstrate a similar sensitivity to the effects of early stimulation. 
Studies show that removing th em from their nest for three minutes each day during the
first five to ten days of life causes body te mperatures to fall below normal.  This mild
form of stress is sufficient to stimulate hormonal, adrenal  and pituitary systems.  When
tested later as adults, these same animals were better able to withstand stress than
littermates who were not exposed to the same  early stress exercises.  As adults, they
responded to stress in "a graded" fashion, while their non-stressed littermates
responded in an "all or nothing way."
Data involving laboratory mice and rats also shows that stress in small amounts can
produce adults who respond maximally.  On the other hand, the results gathered from
non-stressed littermate show that they become  easily exhausted and are near death if
exposed to intense prolonged stress.  When tied down so they were unable to move for
twenty-four hours, rats developed severe  stomach ulcers, but litter mates exposed to
early stress handling were found to be more re sistant to stress tests and did not show
evidence of ulcers.  A secondary affect was also noticed.
Sexual maturity was attained sooner in the littermates given early stress exercises. 
When tested for differences in health and disease, the stressed animals were found to be
more resistant to certain forms of cancer and infectious diseases and could withstand
terminal starvation and exposure to cold  for longer periods than their non-stressed
littermates.
Other studies involving early stimulation exerc ises have been successfully performed on
both cats and dogs.  In these studies, the Electrical Encephalogram (EEG) was found to
be ideal for measuring the electrical activity in the brain b ecause of its extreme
sensitivity to changes in excitement, emotional stress, muscle tension, changes in oxygen
and breathing.  EEG measures show that pups  and kittens when given early stimulation
exercises mature at faster rates and perform better in certain problem solving tests than
non-stimulated mates.
In the higher level animals the effect of  early stimulation exercises have also been
studied.  The use of surrogate mothers and familiar objects were tested by both of the
Kelloggs and Dr. Yearkes using young chimpanzees.  Their pioneer research shows that
the more primates were deprived of stimulation and interaction during early
development, the less able they were to cope , adjust and later adapt to situations as
adults.
While experiments have not yet produced specific information about the optimal
amounts of stress needed to make young animals psychologically or physiologically
superior, researchers agree that stress has value .  What also is known is that a certain
amount of stress for one may be too intense  for another, and that too much stress can
retard development.  The results show that ea rly stimulation exercises can have positive
results but must be used with caution.   In other words, too much stress can cause
pathological adversities rather than physical or psychological superiority.
 
Methods of Stimulation
 
The U.S. Military in their canine program developed a method that still serves as a
guide to what works.  In an effort to impr ove the performance of dogs used for military
purposes, a program called "Bio Sensor" was de veloped.  Later, it became known to the
public as the "Super Dog" Program.  Based on  years of research, the military learned
that early neurological stimulation exercises co uld have important and lasting effects. 
Their studies confirmed that there are specific time periods early in life when
neurological stimulation has optimum results.   The first period involves a window of
time that begins at the third day of life and lasts until the si xteenth day.  It is believed
that because this interval  of time is a period of ra pid neurological growth and
development, and therefore is of great importance to the individual.
 
The "Bio Sensor" program was also concerned with early neurological stimulation in
order to give the dog a superior advantage.  Its development utilized six exercises which
were designed to stimulate the neurological system.  Each workout involved handling
puppies once each day.  The workouts requi red handling them one at a time while
performing a series of five exercises.  Listed in order of preference, the handler starts
with one pup and stimulates it using each  of the five exercises.  The handler completes
the series from beginning to end before star ting with the next pup.  The handling of
each pup once  per day involves the following exercises:
 
1. Tactical stimulation (between toes)
2. Head held erect
3. Head pointed down
4. Supine position
5. Thermal stimulation.
 
Tactile stimulation
 
1. Tactile stimulation - hold ing the pup in one hand, the handler gently stimulates
(tickles) the pup between the toes on any one f oot using a Q-tip.  It is not necessary to
see that the pup is feeling the  tickle.  Time of st imulation 3 - 5 seconds.  (Figure 1)
 
2.  Head held erect - using both hands, the pup is held perpendicular to the ground,
(straight up), so that its head is directly above its tail.  This is an upwards position. 
Time of stimulation 3 - 5 seconds (Figure 2).
 
3.  Head pointed down - holding the pup firmly with both hands the head is reversed
and is pointed downward so that it is pointing towards the ground.  Time of stimulation
3 - 5 seconds (Figure 3).
 
4. Supine position - hold the pup so that its back is resting in the palm of both hands
with its muzzle facing the ceiling.  The pup while  on its back is allowed to sleep.  Time of
stimulation 3-5 seconds.  (Figure 4)
5.  Thermal stimulation—use a damp towel that has been cooled in a refrigerator for at
least five minutes.  Place the pup on the towel, feet down.  Do not restrain it from
moving. Time of stimulation 3-5 seconds.  (Figure 5)
These five exercises will produce neurological stimulations, none of which naturally
occur during this early period of life.  Exp erience shows that sometimes pups will resist
these exercises, others will appear unconcerned.   In either case a caution is offered to
those who plan to use them.  Do not  repeat them more than  once  per day and do not
extend the time beyond that recommended for each exercise.  Over stimulation of the
neurological system can have adverse and detr imental results.  These exercises impact
the neurological system by kicking it into  action earlier than would be normally
expected, the result being an increased capa city that later will help to make the
difference in its performance.  Those who play with their pups and routinely handle
them should continue to do so because th e neurological exercises are not substitutions
for routine handling, play socialization or bonding.
Benefits of Stimulation
 
Five benefits have been observed in canines that were exposed to the Bio Sensor
stimulation exercises.  The benefits noted were:
1. Improved cardio vascular performance (heart rate)
2. Stronger heart beats,
3. Stronger adrenal glands,
4. More tolerance to stress, and
5. Greater resistance to disease.
 
In tests of learning, stimulated pups were found to be more active and were more
exploratory than their non- stimulated littermates over which they were dominant in
competitive situations.
 
Secondary effects were also noted regarding test performance.  In simple problem
solving tests using detours in a maze, the non-stimulat ed pups became extremely
aroused, whined a great deal, and made many  errors.  Their stimulated littermates were
less disturbed or upset by test conditio ns and when comparisons were made, the
stimulated littermates were more calm in th e test environment, made fewer errors and
gave only an occasional distress sound when stressed.
 
Socialization 
 
As each animal grows and develops, three kinds of stimulation have been identified that
impact and influence how it will develop and be  shaped as an individual.  The first stage
is called early neurological stimulation and the second stage is called socialization.  The
first two (early neurological stimulation and socialization) have in common a window of
limited time.  When Lorenz, (1935) first wrote about the importance  of the stimulation
process, he wrote about imprinting during early life and its influence on the later
development of the individual.  He states that it was different from conditioning in that
it occurred early in life and  took place very rapidly producing results which seemed to
be permanent.  One of the first and perhaps  the most noted research effort involving the
larger animals was achieved by Kellogg & Kellogg (1933).  As a student of Dr.
Kellogg's, I found him and his wife to have an uncanny interest in children and young
animals and the changes and the differences that occurred during early development. 
Their history-making study involved raising their own newborn child with a newborn
primate.  Both infants were raised together as  if they were twins.  This study, like others
that followed attempted to demonstrat e that among the ma mmals, there are great
differences in their speed of physical and ment al development.  Some are born relatively
mature and quickly capable of motion and locomotion, while others are very immature,
immobile and slow to develop.  For exam ple, the Rhesus monkey shows rapid and
precocious development at birth, while the chimpanzee and the other "great apes" take
much longer.  Last and slowest is the human infant.
 
One of the earliest efforts to  investigate and look for the existence of socialization in
canines was undertaken by Scott-Fuller (1965).   In their early studies, they were able to
demonstrate that the basic technique for testing the existence of socialization was to
show how readily adult animals would foster young animals, or accept one from
another species.  They observed that, with the higher level animals, it is easiest done by
hand rearing.  When the foster animal transfers its social relationships to the new
species, researchers conclude that socialization has taken place.  Most researchers agree
that among all species, a lack of adequate  socialization generally results in unacceptable
behavior and often times produces undesira ble aggression, excessiveness, fearfulness,
sexual inadequacy and indifference toward partners.
 
Socialization studies confirm that one of the critical periods for humans (infant) to be
stimulated are generally between three weeks  and twelve months of age.  For canines
the period is shorter, between the fourth  and sixteenth weeks of age.  The lack of
adequate social stimulation, such as handling, mothering and contact with others,
adversely affects social and psychological deve lopment in both humans and animals.   In
humans, the absence of love and cuddling increa ses the risk of an aloof, distant, asocial
or sociopathic individual. Over-mothering also  has its detrimental effects by preventing
sufficient exposure to other individuals and si tuations that have an important influence
on growth and development. It occurs when  a parent insulates the child from outside
contacts or keeps the apron strings tight,  thus limiting opportunities to explore and
interact with the outside world.  In th e end, over-mothering generally produces a
dependent, socially maladjusted and sometimes emotionally disturbed individual.
Protected youngsters who grow up in an insulated environment often become sickly,
despondent, lacking in flexibility and unable to make simp le social adjustments. 
Generally, they are unable to function productively or to interact successfully when
they become adults.
 
Owners who have busy life styles with long and tiring work and social schedules often
cause pets to be neglected.  Left to themselves with only an occasi onal trip out of the
house or off of the property they seldom s ee other canines or strangers and generally
suffer from poor stimulation and socialization.   For many, the side effects of loneliness
and boredom set-in.  The resulting behavior manifests itself in  the form of chewing,
digging, and hard- to-control behavior (Battaglia).
It seems clear that small amounts of stress followed by early socialization can produce
beneficial results.  The danger seems to be  in not knowing where  the thresholds are for
over and under stimulation.  Many improperly  socialized youngsters develop into older
individuals unprepared for adult life, una ble to cope with its challenges, and
interactions.  Attempts to re-socialize them as  adults have only produced small gains. 
These failures confirm the notion that the wi ndow of time open for early neurological
and social stimulation only come s once.  After it passes, little or nothing can be done to
overcome the negative effects of too much or too little stimulation.
 
The third and final stage in the process  of growth and development is called
enrichment.  Unlike the first two stages it has  no time limit, and by comparison, covers
a very long period of time.  Enrichment is  a term which has come to mean the positive
sum of experiences which have a cumulative  effect upon the indi vidual.  Enrichment
experiences typically involve exposure to a wide variety of interesting, novel, and
exciting experiences with regular opportunities to freely investi gate, manipulate, and
interact with them.  When measured in later life, the results show that those reared in
an enriched environment tend to be more  inquisitive and are more able to perform
difficult tasks.  The educational TV program called “Sesame Street” is perhaps the best
known example of a children's enrichment program.  The results show that when
tested, children who regularly watched this  program performed better than playmates
who did not.  Follow-up studies show that those who regularly watch “Sesame Street”
tend to seek a college education and when  enrolled, performed better than playmates
who were not regular watchers of the “Sesame Street” program.
 
There are numerous children’s studies that show  the benefits of enrichment techniques
and programs.  Most focus on improving self-esteem and self-talk.  Follow-up studies
show that the enriched “Sesame Street” students, when later tested were brighter and
scored above average, and most often were found to be the products of environments
that contributed to their superior test scores.  On the other hand, those whose test
scores were generally below average, (labeled as dull) and the products of
underprivileged or non- enriched environments, often had little or only small amounts
of stimulation during early childhood and only minimal amounts of  enrichment during
their developmental and formative years.   Many were characterized as children who
grew up with little interaction with others , poor parenting, few toys, no books and a
steady diet of TV soap operas.
 
A similar analogy can be found among canines.  All the time they are growing they are
learning because their nervous systems are  developing and storing information that
may be of inestimable use at a later date.   Studies by Scott and Fuller confirm that non-enriched pups, when given free choice, preferred  to stay in their kennels.  Other litter
mates who were given only small amounts of outside stimulation between five and eight
weeks of age were found to be very inquisi tive and very active.  When kennel doors
were left open, the enriched pups would come bounding out while littermates who were
not exposed to enrichment would remain  behind.  The non-stimulated pups would
typically be fearful of unfamiliar objects  and generally preferred to withdraw rather
than investigate.  Even well-bred pups of superior pedigrees would not explore or leave
their kennels, and many were found difficult to train as adults.  These pups, in many
respects, were similar to the deprived children.  They acted as if they had become
institutionalized, preferring the routine and  safe environment of  their kennel to the
stimulating world outside their  immediate place of residence.
Regular trips to the park, shopping centers and obedience and agility classes serve as
good examples of enrichment activities.  Chasing and retrieving a ball on the surface
seems to be enriching because it provides exercise and includes rewards.  While
repeated attempts to retrieve a ball provide  much physical activity, it should not be
confused with enrichment exercises.  Such playful activities should be used for exercise
and play or as a reward after returning from a trip or training session.  Road work and
chasing balls are not substitutes for trips to the shopping mall, outings or obedience
classes most of which provide many opportunities for interaction and investigation.
 
Finally, it seems clear that stress early in life  can produce beneficial  results.  The danger
seems to be in not knowing where the thresholds are for over and under stimulation. 
The absence or the lack of adequate amounts of stimulation generally will produce
negative and undesirable results.  Based on  the above, it is fair to say that the
performance of most individuals can be improved, including the techniques described
above.  Each contributes in a cumulative way and supports the next stage of
development.
 
Conclusion
 
Breeders can now take advantage of the information available to improve and enhance
performance.  Generally, genetics account for about 35% of the performance, but the
remaining 65% (management, training, nutrition) can make the difference.  In the
management category, it has been shown that breeders should be guided by the rule
that it is generally consid ered prudent to guard against under and over stimulation. 
Short of ignoring pups during their first two months of life, a conservative approach
would be to expose them to children, people, toys and other animals on a regular basis. 
Handling and touching all parts of their anatomy is also a necessary part of their
learning which can be started as early as th e third day of life.  Pups that are handled
early and on a regular basis generally do not become hand-shy as adults.
 
Because of the risks involved in under-stimulation, a conservative approach to using the
benefits of the three stages has been suggested based primarily on the works of
Arskeusky, Kellogg, Yearkes and the "Bio Sensor" program (later known as the "Super
Dog Program").
 
Both experience and research have dominated th e beneficial effects that can be achieved
via early neurological stimulat ion, socialization and enrichment experiences.  Each has
been used to improve performance and to explain the differences that occur between
individuals, their trainability, health and pote ntial.  The cumulative effects of the three
stages have been well documented.  They best  serve the interests of owners who seek
high levels of performance when properly used.  Each has a cumulative effect and
contributes to the development and the  potential for individual performance.
 
 
 
 
References:
 
1. Battaglia, C.L., "Loneliness and Boredom" Doberman Quarterly, 1982.
 
2. Kellogg, W.N. & Kellogg, The Ape and the Child , New York: McGraw Hill.
 
3.   Scott & Fuller, (1965) Dog Behavior -The Genetic Basics, University Chicago
Press.
 
4.   Scott, J.P., Ross, S., A.E. and King D.K.  (1959) The Effects of Early Enforced
Weaning Behavior of Puppies, J. Genetics Psychologist, p 5: 261-81.
 
 
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
 
Carmen L Battaglia holds a Ph.D. and Masters Degree from Florida State University. As
an AKC judge, researcher and writer, he has been a leader in promotion of breeding
better dogs and has written many articles and several books.
 
Dr. Battaglia is also a popular TV and radio talk show speaker. His seminars on breeding
dogs, selecting sires and choosing puppies have been well received by the breed clubs all
over the country. Those interested in learning more about his seminars should contact him
directly. Visit his website at http://www.breedingbetterdogs.com
 
 
 
 
 
 

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« Ответ #33 : 27 Май 2015, 08:45:44 »
Early Stimulation Exercises 
 









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« Ответ #34 : 25 Июнь 2015, 18:58:09 »

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« Ответ #35 : 26 Июнь 2015, 14:02:37 »
Не пущщают посмотреть!  :(

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« Ответ #36 : 26 Июнь 2015, 15:27:35 »
Не пущщают посмотреть!  :(

Зарегениться нужно на одноклассниках американьских ))) и будет Щастье ))).

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« Ответ #37 : 26 Июнь 2015, 16:58:07 »
Не пущщают посмотреть!  :(

Зарегениться нужно на одноклассниках американьских ))) и будет Щастье ))).
на всех счастья не хватает видимо... )
Цитировать
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« Ответ #38 : 26 Июнь 2015, 18:53:32 »
на всех счастья не хватает видимо... )

Хватает,и там зарегенеться надоть куда идёть ссыль.

http://prntscr.com/7lm80q

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« Ответ #39 : 26 Июнь 2015, 18:57:35 »

на скрине видно, что аккаунт америконских одноглазников имеется )

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« Ответ #40 : 26 Июнь 2015, 21:13:59 »
Вроде как мой плохой ахлийский мне говорит так - вы не входите в ту аудиторию ))).
войти в Группу,вроде тогда проблем будет решена.

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« Ответ #41 : 26 Июнь 2015, 21:39:46 »
ну вот, сначала зарегистрируйся, потом в группу вступи, подом в друзья добавься, зачем такое Щастье  :crazy:

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« Ответ #42 : 26 Июнь 2015, 22:00:49 »
Ненеенее, достаточно только в группу вступить, чтобы посмотреть,  у меня во всяком случае так  ;)

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« Ответ #43 : 27 Июнь 2015, 19:01:35 »
Извините, вам запрещён просмотр содержимого спойлеров.

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« Ответ #44 : 14 Сентябрь 2015, 13:12:49 »