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Оффлайн Alveig

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« : 14 Июнь 2013, 23:37:20 »
переодически делаю себе закладочки с интересностями. Но потом многое теряю, есссно.

Ничё если я тут буду складывать?

вот совсем недавнее:


"WHAT IS A BREEDER?

 Written by Peggy Adamson

 Text of a speech given before the Annual Symposium of the "National Dog Owners and Handlers Association" in Feb. 1969...

 The breeder is the mainspring of the dog world. Without the breeder, there would be no dogs. Without the dogs, there would be no kennel clubs, no dog shows, no judges, no handlers, no trainers, no dog food companies, no dog publications.
 Despite their importance, the breeder represents a very small segment of the dog world, which in turn, creates the dog business. Furthermore, they are the ones who seldom, if ever, make a profit, even in the most popular breeds; and since they cannot take a livelihood from their breeding activites, they must be able to rely on some other source of income. "
 Why then, do people ever become Breeders??
 A breeder has, in his mind, a perfect dog that he someday hopes to create. He presses on to breed his ideal dog, unfettered by desires to be a conformist, or to pander to the buying public. Like the artist or sculptor, he is activated by a creative, inner drive which is totally unaffected by considerations of what will sell or what won't. Unlike the sculptor however, he is working with living flesh and is constantly fighting time. He can never put his work away and come back to it later. The raw material on which he labors is constantly changing - sometimes for the better, sometimes for the worse; sometimes as a result of his efforts and sometimes in spite of them. Nature and Time are his greatest adversaries, yet when he least expects it, they may prove to be his greatest allies. The sculptor can use the chisel to chip away at his mistakes, but it may take years for the breeder to see where he has made a mistake - a mistake which in some cases may never be remedied.
 True breeders speak the same language, whatever their breed. Without the slightest previous communication, they discover that they think the same way, they have the same ideals and goals and standards of behavior and the same awareness of responsibility. Like the Beautiful People in the social world, they immediately recognize each other - not because they know each other's names or who they are, but because as kindred spirits they realize what they are.
 Just WHO and what IS a Breeder? "
 Technically, anyone who owns or leases a bitch and produces a litter out of her is a breeder of dogs. It is of no matter what considerations were involved in the choice of mate or what the puppies were like, or how they were disposed of- perhaps to the nearest pet shop. This person has bred a litter, the minimum requirement to becoming a Breeder. He is now on the lowest rung of the breeding ladder. How far upward he goes will depend on many factors, some of which are under his control, and some of which are matters of luck. Some people paint all their lives but never become real artists; some people raise hundreds of litters of puppies, but never become true Breeders.
 Let us consider how people buy their first pure-bred dog. It usually comes about in one or two ways. In the first case, the person passes a pet shop with a litter of puppies, frolicking in the window, lingers to watch and impulsively decides to buy one of them. Presto! he has now become a dog-owner. In the second case, a person sees a dog in the street, in the movies, or on television, likes it's looks and makes up his mind to have one just like it. How does he go about it?
 He picks up the newspaper, sees a litter advertised, goes to look at it, and comes home with a puppy. Few people in either group have ever seen a dog magazine or been to a dog show. They want to buy a dog (and I say this in quotes)"with papers" although they have only the foggiest idea what they mean. The dogs that these people buy are like children who grow up with no family.
 A much smaller portion of pure-bred dogs are bought as a result of advertising in dog magazines and other trade publications. These are the dogs which form the bulk of our dog shows. For the most part, they are bought from Breeders. They are not usually the result of impulse buying, but of considerable searching, looking and even waiting. Many of these dogs are the second pure-bred dog for the owner, the first having come from one of the two groups first mentioned.
 How does a dog-buyer move from the first or second group to the third? Some never do. But if, by sheer luck - and it is often just that- the buyer gets a reasonably good breed specimen, he may become interested in the breed and want to find out more about it. He may attend a dog show, read books and magazines, seek out training classes and dog clubs and by his own efforts become what the cognoscenti regard as a "Dog Person". But he has to do this all on his own.
 Had he bought his dog from a real Breeder, everything would have been much easier for him. Just what does he get from the Breeder - or let us say, what can he expect?
 Family Pride
 First and above all, he gets a pride of ownership, not only in a breed but in a family. The pedigree he gets with his dog will mean something to him - the real Breeder will see to that. It will come alive to him - if not immediately, certainly eventually! There is magic in a name which stands for something, and it will rub off on all that possess it.
 We see this in the case of our great families in the social and political world, the Rockefellers and Roosevelts, the Astors and the Kennedys. In the dog world we find it in illustrious kennel names. These names do not become illustrious overnight, nor are they illustrious merely becuase they are familiar to people through aggressive advertising. A name which is synonymous with quality in the mind of the public is that of a great store, "Tiffany's". How long would it retain it's aura if we began to hear television commercials shouting its' prestige, or urging "Rush to Tiffany's this weekend for the greatest sale of the year"? Thus, because a name is known to the public is no assurance that it is a great name. Only years of high standards and good taste will create a name that is an asset to a human being, to a product, or to a dog.
 The Influence of the Real Breeder is Far Reaching
 He invests the people that buy his dogs with the desire to become breeders themselves and an appreciation of all this entails. From him, they learn a philosophy of showing, a code of ethics in sportsmanship. They learn how to train their dogs, or where they can be trained, how to handle their dogs and where and when or whether to show them. The breeder encourages them to go to training and handling classes, read books and dog magazines, advise them how to breed their bitches, raise their litters, take care of their old dogs. He answers innumerable questions and gives out emergency advise when they can't get a veterinarian. All this, a good Breeder attempts to do. Unfortunately, as the years go on, he realises he has created a Frankenstein, which grows constantly bigger and threatens to devour him. For this reason, all Breeders eventually reach a point where the more conscientious they are in recognizing the demands on them, the more difficult they find it is to take care of all of them.
 The Breeder is Like the Head of the Family
 He gives those who buy his dogs a sense of "belonging". This is of the utmost to people with their first or second dogs. They develop an interest in the dog's ancestors, about which the breeder can give them a wealth of information, and in the dog's relatives. Thus is built up a great family pride-- in their own dogs and in all the other dogs that carry the same kennel name. They learn from the breeder more about their breed and what constitutes a good specimen of it than they could ever find out from any book. The breeder, in a good many cases, is also a specialist. This is to say, he is an authority on his own breed and can be expected to know more about it than any judge who is not a specialist. He teaches those to whom he sells his dogs to evaluate their own dogs, many times encouraging and training these people so that some day they may be able to become specialists themselves.
 The real breeder disciplines himself not to expect gratitude or appreciation for his services-- which is well, because those who benefit most will rarely give public recognition to the fact. The real breeder does what he does because of what he is. he can not do otherwise.
 Breeders have a great deal to say about their Breed Standard. They give generously of their time to the national Breed organization and it is through a consensus of the breeders that the Standard is arrived at, or changed.
 The Breeders are the Aristocracy of the Dog World
 If there is a caste system, they are at the very top. Each breeder has a great sense of his own worth. Individually, that is. He is proud to be what he is and what he stands for. However, he rarely thinks of his worth collectively with other breeders. That is because Breeders are independent and individualistic. Therein lies their strength - and also their weakness. It is why their importance as a group is constantly overlooked in the hierarchy of the dog world. There are many more women Breeders than men Breeders, yet the American Kennel Club , which could not exist without breeders, allows no women to be a part of it's governing body. (**NOTE:Remember, this was written in 1969) Even an all woman club which is a member of the AKC must be represented by a man. Obviously, this discrimination on the basis of sex is a matter which advocates of equal rights for women have not as yet taken notice of!
 The great advances made by any breed - and I am not here referring to registration increases - have all been brought about by the Breeders.
 In distinguishing between the Breeders in the best sense of the word and those who fall short of it, I shall refer to these people as The "Breeders" and the "Puppy Raisers" The primary difference between the Breeder and the puppy-raiser is the awareness of responsibility; responsibility to his breed, to his goals, to the dogs he has bred and to the dogs he hopes to breed. He also has a never-ending responsibility to the people who have bought his dogs, to the people who are about to buy his dogs and to the public image--not only of the dogs he has been producing but of the breed itself.
 The Breeders are essentially givers. They give to their chosen breed much more than they will ever receive. Their rewards are intangible rather than financial. Here again is the great difference between the Breeder and the puppy-raiser. The latter produces puppies in order to sell them, getting them off his hands as quickly as possible before their cost has eaten up his hoped-for profit. The breeder, on the other hand, has an entirely different motivation. He breeds a litter only when he can devote the necessary time, money and work to it. he never breeds when he knows he will be up against a deadline; that is to say, a time when he knows all his puppies must be sold.
 Never, never does he breed a litter unless he plans to keep something from it, which hopefully will bring him one step closer to producing his ideal dog. If the litter is disappointing, he may sell the whole litter; but the better the breeder, the less often he will find it necessary to do this. The Breeder is constantly selecting and pruning his stock, sometimes because he no longer needs it, and sometimes because he has discovered a reason why he does not want it. The two reasons are very different. In the case of a dog he no longer needs, the reason may be that he has gotten from that dog what he wanted in order to further his breeding plans. In the case of the dog he no longer wants as breeding stock, he may have uncovered a reason why this dog would be detrimental to his breeding program.
 The Breeder is Constantly Faced with Difficult Decisions
 Actually, the latter are his breeding cast-offs. Yet they may be delightful as individuals. They are not so faulty that they should never be bred, yet they fall far short of the Breeder's standards. They are like the so-called "seconds of sheets and towels by Famous Makers" that stores advertise as "slightly irregular"
 The breeder does his best to put these dogs in the homes of people who are not primarily interested in breeding, but all too often they turn up later with litters advertised in newspapers and magazines, trading on his name and reputation to help sell the puppies. Though the dam and/or sire may carry his kennel name, the puppies are not of his breeding, a distinction that the dog buying public seldom realizes. Sometimes this causes the Breeder embarrassment. Much more often, it fills him with annoyance. Many years ago, this situation occurred in one of the dog magazines with a Collie Breeder, who proceeded to feature the following stement in all her advertising: "The purest water is at the well".
 The Breeder's Greatest Problem is to Hold Down His Dog Population
 The better the breeder, the difficult this becomes and each time he breeds a litter, he increases it. For this reason, the breeder does not, and cannot, breed often. He keeps more dogs than he should, not because he wants to but because he will not part with a dog unless he is sure it will be for the dog's best interests. As a result, many of these dogs live in his house to the day they die, as treasuered pets, even though they are no longer used in the breeding program, either because they have already contributed or because they can not make the contribution he wants. Occasionally, in the case of the one who has already contributed, he may either sell or give this dog to someone else, who will indeed be fortunate and can thus benefit from the Breeder's handiwork. This person may be another breeder, or he may be a novice. In the case of the dog he does not wish to use in his breeding prgram, it may be sold or given to someone who is not interested in breeding and who wants just one dog as a lifetime companion.
 The one dog owner who gives a dog his individual attention for the duration of its' life, loving it, training it, perhaps showing it, can do for the dog what no Breeder ever can. Because the breeder is so well aware of this he sometimes parts with his very best dogs, often to the surprise of others. If this dog happens to be a male, there will be no loss to his breeding program unless the dog goes to a distance place, but in the case of a bitch, he usually reserves some breeding rights. Where a sizable sum is involved, this usually is a right to select the stud and chose a puppy from the first litter. In this case, the Breeder is taking a calculated risk, and one which he frequently finds disastrous; namely, the gamble that there will be a bitch in that litter that he can select to carry on with. If there is not, he has lost far more than the one fine dog he has sold, and there is really no way of estimating the full extent of his loss.
 The breeder is always thinking in terms of the past and the future, while the single dog owner is concerned with the present.
 The Puppy-Raiser does not Care to Whom he Sells His Dogs
 The important objective for him is to get them sold, and as quickly as possible. He is like the gardener who scatters his seed all over the ground with little regard for it's subsequent growth and cultivation.
 The breeder, on the other hand, has deep concern for the ultimate destination of what he has produced. To him, a dog is not an over-the-counter commodity to be sold to anyone who wants it and has the money to pay for it. This matter of attitude is another one of the great differences between the breeder and the puppy-raiser.
 When the Breeder sells or disposes of a dog, whether very young or grown, he is parting with something that is much more than what it looks to be in the eyes of the prospective buyer. The buyer sees a beautiful specimen of the breed- healthy, sound and a look of quality. The breeder sees all these things, but a great deal more. To him, the dog represents years of hard work-- often menial work-- years full of excitement, exultation and disappointments. He does not merely see the beauty in the individual dog before him, but a long line of ancestors, dogs that he knew and loved and that went into the making of this particular individual. When the Breeder looks at an animal he has bred, his view has an extra dimension-- he sees that dog in DEPTH.
 The Breeder Carefully Screens Prospective Buyers
 He knows that changes of ownership can have a traumatic effect on a dog, especially if there are several of them. The dog becomes confused and loses his sense of security, an absolute necessity if he is to have confidence. This situation is as disastrous to a dog as it is to a child, in fact more so because there is no way to explain to a dog what is taking place.
 From the standpoint of the breeder, the ideal one-dog owner is a pearl beyond price. The more such people he can enable to possess his dogs, the more successful he will become as a Breeder, and the more successful he is as a Breeder the more likely he is to have more good dogs than it is practical for him to keep. Unlike the puppy-raiser who breeds his bitches every season and often has several litters at a time, the breeder rarely breeds his bitches more than three or four times in a lifetime, and some times not even that many. The expenses of maintaining his dogs year after year are exorbitant, and coupled with this never-ceasing drain on his resources is the gnawing awareness that even though they get the best of food, veterinarian care, and love, he cannot possibly give them the advantages which would be theirs in the case of the ideal one-dog ownership. For this reason, he is usually reluctant to sell to other breeders, feeling that the dog would not be bettered by the change of homes where it would still be one of many.He can give each dog he owns everything that money can by and his limitations of his can allow - he can literally give the dogs his entire house, and all his furniture - piece by piece! But the only thing he cannot give is the important feeling of being # 1 dog in the household, and the chance for constant exposure to the outside world.
 The Puppy-Raiser Rarely Asks Questions
 If the buyer wants a dog and has the money to pay for it, he has met the only requirements necessary to take possession of the dog.
 But the Breeder's attitude is very different. The Breeder not only asks many questions to which he must get the right answers or he will not sell the dog--he must also know something of the buyer's background. What dogs did he have before? How old were they when he got them, and what eventually happened to them? What were the things that he liked about each one and what were the things that annoyed him? From these answers, the Breeder will have to determine what kind of dog-owner this buyer has been, and what kind he is likely to be. Did he have only one dog who lived to be 13 or 14 or more, or did he have several dogs, each of which he disposed of for a variety of reasons. Obviously, the latter buyer is going to be a bad risk. He is like the car driver who has many accidents, none of which he believes to be his fault.
 When considering a buyer, the breeder must project his thinking into the future. He must decide whether the germs of future trouble are lurking in the buyer's present situation and thinking. If a young man, is the buyer likely to go into the Army, or to college? If an older man, does his wife want this dog? If a bachelor, who will care for the dog if anything happens to him? What attitude does the buyer have toward his past disappointments? Does he blame everyone except himself? Is he the type of person who is always trying to get as much as possible for as little as posible? Would a really good dog be wasted on him?
 To the extent that the breeder can make these evaluations successfully, he will save himself many future complications. No matter how many dogs he has, as long as his money and his health hold out, his dogs are a problem to him, but only a problem. The problems of keeping them well fed and comfortalby housed may seem difficult at times, but they are not serious. In the hands of the wrong buyer, however, the dog becomes a hostage. Why?? Because the breeder cares. It could not matter to the puppy-raiser because he would not concern himself about such matters.
 Regardless of how carefully he screens the buyers, the Breeder will still have occasional disappointments. Human nature being what it is, this is inevitable. Dogs will be returned to him-- and he will accept them-- not because of any fault in the dog, but because the buyer himself, or the conditions of his life, have changed.
 What happens to These Dogs?
 Few people realize the number of older dogs that live to the age of 13 or 14 in the homes of Breeders. In the business world, these dogs would be considered obsolete equipment and destroyed. But the Breeder's world is different. He recognizes a responsibility toward anything that he has brought into the world and takes care of it it until the dog is dead-- or he is. If he can find the right person to sell or give it to, he does; but if he can not, he continues to keep it himself. The drain on the breeder's strength and finances is merciless. Occasionally, when faced with severe illness or drastically reduced income, he may have to decree that some or all of his dogs be put to sleep. And even this costs money. When a breeder makes this decision, few people understand it.
 The general public and those who have never known the responsibility which goes with more than one or two dogs will probably regard this as cruelty. But, as previously stressed, the Breeder has a responsibility for whatever he brings into the world until it goes out of it. If the dog is in the wrong hands, he must try to get it back, and then either keep it or see that it is put into the right hands. If the Breeder is no longer able to do this, there is only one way he can be sure his dogs will never know hunger or abuse. That is euthanasia. To the breeder who loves his dogs, there is no more tragic decision he will ever have to make. when he himself is faced with incapacitiating ill health, or even death, he must recognize the cold hard facts regarding the future of his dogs. Without his guiding hand and sense of responsibilty, the dogs are much better off dead. A breeder will make any sacrifice to avoid this situation, but when it arises, he will do what he knows is necessary. Why? because he is a Breeder and feels responsibiltiy towards his animals
 Now, what of the Breeder's Responsibility to His Breed?
 A successful breeder usually becomes something of a public figure. He may be requested to write about his breed, to speak about it, to judge it.
 His relationship to his breed is something very different. As a judge and as a writer, he must be completely objective. Indeed, he must bend over backwards to achieve this impartiality.
 The breeder's responsibilty to his breed does not permit him to use opportunities either in judging or writing to exploit his own stock. He is abrogating this resposibility to the breed, not to mention considerations of good taste, if he uses a magazine's breed column to promote his own breeding, or in judging to favor the same. He can make known his bloodlines and his winning through the paid advertisements, providing they are honest and factual, but never uses the public space to get free publicity. When the breeder writes for the public, he is representing his breed, not himself or his stock, and it is this broader perspective that sets apart the true Breeder with a sense of responsibility from the commercial one whose only consideration is to promote his wares.
 A Breeder has Great Care for the Public Image of His Breed
 He tries to inoculate these values in the people to whom he sells his dogs, and in everyone with whom he comes in contact. He is reluctant to critcize what he considers the shortcomings of other Breeders, or to fault the products of their handiwork. He scorns high pressure salesmanship and the advertising techniques of Madison Avenue. Giving straightforward answers to the people who have bought, or are about to buy, his own stock, he neither glosses over the faults nore makes exaggerated claims or predictions. He is forthright in his thinking, his talking, his actions. People instinctively trust him, not because he asks for their trust,(which he does not) but because of what he is.
 The real Breeders are the heart and soul of the dog world. They stand proud and often alone, resisting commercialism, undeviated in their search for perfection and idealistic in their code of ethics"

Оффлайн Лена Беспалова

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« Ответ #1 : 14 Июнь 2013, 23:59:39 »
Да мы будем только рады! )

Оффлайн Colonel

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« Ответ #2 : 15 Июнь 2013, 00:06:30 »
Вот еще бы на суахили перевести :)

Оффлайн Каб

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  • И как спали вповалку Живые, не видя снов
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« Ответ #3 : 15 Июнь 2013, 00:28:27 »
Переводил я долго,верне перевёл то быстро,потом кубики собирал ещё на ФБ.

Оффлайн Люда Вожак

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« Ответ #4 : 15 Июнь 2013, 13:05:09 »
Перевела я на Сократе,но хотелось-бы в отредактированном виде почитать.Доступном для масс,так сказать.

Оффлайн Alveig

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« Ответ #5 : 08 Декабрь 2013, 11:37:22 »
The Pox of Popular Sires

12/05/2013



The most common admonition of the geneticist to the dog breeder is to "avoid the Popular Sire Syndrome". At the same time, the most common advice from breeder to breeder is "breed the best to best". So the conundrum is obvious and the consequence predictable - the "best" dogs are the most sought after, so they sire the most offspring and become popular sires.

The Popularity of Popular Sires
Even a century ago Williams Haynes (1915) was writing about the "Effect of the popular sire", noting that in three terrier breeds that he examined - Irish Terriers, Scottish Terriers, and Fox Terriers - about 40% of the puppies were sired by only 20% of the sires. Back then, "popularity" was quite different than now - his "prolific" dogs sired 5-7 litters, which would be completely unremarkable today. And surprisingly, the point of Haynes' paper was that Popular Sires actually benefitted the breed by contributing to the preservation of variability in type.

Superficially it might appear that if approximately 40% of the puppies each year are sired by but 20% of the stud dogs this would eventually result in the greatest uniformity of type. The selected sires are all to a greater or lesser degree exceptional animals, but they are not selected by any uniform system. Most of them excel in some particular physical point, but they do not excel in the same points or in the same degree, nor even, in some cases, in the same direction. Here the personal equation, the ideals of different breeders, is at work, and the result is that since a few males not themselves of uniform type sire a greater-than-average number of offspring they disturb the race average of the following generation and introduce abnormal amounts of variation. The fact therefore, that artificial selection gives to certain selected, but not uniform, males an undue preponderance of influence must always keep the type of domestic animals in an unstable state. This seems to me an important factor in the great variability always noted among domesticated breeds.

Haynes thought popular sires were a good thing, because he thought they were sufficiently different from each other that they prevented the breed from becoming too "uniform". How then did the popular sire go from contributing to the quality of the gene pool in 1915, to the source of a problem to be avoided by breeders 100 years later? What is this "syndrome" that today's geneticists are so concerned about?

Breaking Bad: DNA
To understand the problem, you must understand a bit of genetics. You probably know about mutations - bits of DNA that are not replicated perfectly or are perhaps damaged by some environmental toxin. If the mutation is dominant and affects some vital process, it is removed from the gene pool by natural selection when that individual fails to pass its genes on to the next generation successfully. But many mutations have no ill effects because their paired, dominant allele functions normally. These "recessive" mutations are silent in the genome and can be passed to the next generation the same as any other gene, and as long as the offspring has a copy of a normal allele the mutation remains silent. The mutation becomes a problem when an individual inherits two copies so is homozygous at that locus. Without at least one copy of the normal, unmutated allele, the gene does not function properly, and the consequence can range from something relatively trivial (e.g., a different eye color, or slightly shorter legs) to the catastrophic (e.g, blindness, disruption of a critical biochemical pathway, cancer).

Mutations happen all the time. The ones with immediate ill effects are removed from the gene pool by natural selection, while the recessive, silent ones remain in the genome as the "genetic load". Every dog - in fact, every organism - has its own unique collection of damaged alleles that causes no harm as long as there is also a copy of a normal allele of each that can do the job it is supposed to.

A Star is Born
Now consider what happens in a population of purebred dogs. Let's pretend that this cute collection of dogs represents your breed, with the phenotypic variations among them representing the nuances of type that would be obvious to a serious breeder. We've given each dog a (typographic) recessive mutation, a bit of DNA damage that is not expressed so it has no detrimental effect on the dog. If each dog in our population has a litter of puppies this year, the frequencies of these various alleles in the population will stay about the same in the next generation.



But what happens if one of these dogs wins big at an important event and becomes a star? If it's a bitch, she will have a litter of much sought-after puppies, and it will probably be at least a year before she is bred again.

But if our star is male (let's call him "Hank"), he will be bred many times and produce dozens (or more!) puppies in a single year. Hank will pass half of his genes, both good and bad, to each of his offspring, so many copies of his recessive, silent mutations get distributed in his puppies.



As long as Hank's deleterious mutations are paired with a normal allele in his puppies, they are not expressed and cause no ill effects. But if you could view the gene pool of the breed in the new generation, you would see that now it is markedly different.

Hank's mutation has in just a single generation gone from being rare to common, and now lurks silently in the genomes of dozens of his offspring. In this generation, noone is any the wiser. The prized puppies that carry their sire's recessive mutation will appear to be no different than the ones that don't.

The Next Generation...
But in the next generation we start to see the first hint of trouble. Perhaps there were a few half-sib matings, or father-to-daughter, and some puppies are produced that are homozygous for Hank's mutation. Perhaps the mutation is lethal and these are stillborn pups, or maybe the puppies are born with a disease. But the breeders will be mystified - they have never had this problem in their line, or even in the breed, so maybe it's just bad luck? Nobody can see yet that this is just the tip of the iceberg.



In one more generation, however, the trouble really begins. Carriers produced by the first generation will pass on the mutation to half of their offspring, and half-sib matings or line breedings back to the sire will begin to produce affected puppies. Even while the number of affected puppies is still relatively small, the number of carriers will by now be significant, and remember that our popular sire probably continues to produce more than his fair share of the offspring in each generation. You can see where this is headed. The seeds have been sown.



Every litter produced by this popular sire is one less reproductive opportunity for any of the other potential sires in the breed, so the frequency of genes carried by those unused sires will decline in the population. At the same time, multiple bitches are producing puppies sired by Hank that will be half-sibs to the dozens of other puppies in their generation. The temptation to capture a bit more of that popular sire's star qualities will probably result in a few line breedings that will put carrier with carrier.

Uh-oh, We've Got A Problem
This is about the time breeders begin to notice that there is a "problem" in the breed. It won't take a pedigree sleuth to trace the growing population of affected dogs back to Hank, our popular sire who will now be blamed for introducing this new disease into the breed. Geneticists will be called in to hunt for the defective bit of Hank's DNA and to develop a reliable test. Then breeders will begin the mission of trying to eliminate Hank's formerly valuable genes from the gene pool, with proportional collateral damage to the genetic legacy of all of the bitches he was bred to. The genetic carnage resulting from attempts to purify the breed of the unfortunate mutation will continue for generations. The ultimate damage to the gene pool can be catastrophic.



This happens over and over again in breed after breed. Of course, the problem isn't poor Hank. Wind back the clock, and if the judge had pointed to a different dog at that fateful show - let's say it was Rosco who got the nod - the trajectory of the breed would have been completely different but the consequences pretty much the same. Rosco will leave his genetic legacy behind in dozens of lovely puppies, half of which will have that one nasty mutation that will emerge a few generations down the road to bite the breed. Breeders will eventually catch on, sound the alarm, and the effort to identify and eradicate the offending mutation will begin. The gene pool will be purged, and the next time a big winner appears that happens to be male, the cycle will begin anew.

The Unfortunate Legacy of the Popular Sire
The really unfortunate thing about the Popular Sire is that the negative genetic consquences of his popularity don't begin to manifest for generations, by which time the breed already has a really significant problem. The large number of breed-specific disorders known to be caused by a single recessive gene (175 as of this writing; OMIA) is testimony to the prevalence of the problem (indeed, some breeds now suffer from multiple recessive genetic disorders).

Of course, it is not just the recessive mutations that are disseminated widely by popular sires. Any genetic disorder can become quickly widespread, especially in the absence of any means of documenting the appearance of a new disease and if breeders are not willing to be completely transparent about issues they are aware of. Unacceptable aggression in English Springer Spaniels, which used to be one of the most popular family dogs in the US, appears to be genetic and has been traced to one popular sire from a prominant kennel (Reisner & Houpt 2005; Duffy 2008). Twenty-five percent of Bernese Mountain Dogs die at an average age of only 8 years old from histiocytic sarcoma (Dobson), a fatal cancer that apparently originated from a single dog in Switzerland, and the flames were fanned by a prolific great-grandson in the US that spread the malignant genes far and wide in the gene pool (Dobson 2013; Moore 1984; Moore & Rosin 1986). Many Dobermans die at an early age from sudden heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy, which can be traced to seven popular sires in the 1950's, three of which died of heart failure (http://bit.ly/1anuinN). A serious - usually lethal - susceptibility of Miniature Schnauzers to infection by Mycobacteria avium (referred to as "MAC" for Mycobacteria avium complex) is thought to be traceable to a sire popular in the mid-1980s and is found now in dogs all over the world (http://bit.ly/1gZbGy7; http://bit.ly/1ciVxNP). There are no doubt many other similar examples that I am not aware of or have never been documented.

Leroy (2011) has identified popular sires as the single most important contributor to the dissemination of genetic diseases in purebred dogs. Recognizing this, the FCI has issued a recommendation to breeders that no dog should have more offspring (presumably in its lifetime) than equivalent to 5% of the number of puppies registered in the breed during a five-year period, and a number of national kennel clubs have followed suit (e.g., Finland). But without cooperation of breed clubs, or in the absence of some authority that would oversee registrations and be in a position to police such a breeding restriction, it is hard to see how such a recommendation would have any effect at all on current breeding practices. (Which 5-year period? Which population of dogs - the worldwide breed, or just the dogs in your country? Who does the counting - the owner of the sire, the owner of the bitch, the breed club, the kennel club??).

The only people benefitting from the explosion of breed-specific genetic disorders are the molecular geneticists, who have discovered dogs as an ideal research animal because many of the same disorders occur in humans (Ostrander 2012). But as useful and fascinating as dogs might be for their research, I suspect all would prefer to see dogs that are free of genetic disease, for they have so much more to offer in the family home than in the lab.


Dobson, JM. 2013. Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs. ISRN Veterinary Science 2013: (doi: 10.1155/2013/941275)
Duffy, DL, Y Hsu, JA Serpell. 2008. Breed differences in canine aggression. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 114: 441-460.
Haynes, W. 1915. Effect of the popular sire. Journal of Heredity 6: 494-496.
Leroy, G. 2011. Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses. Veterinary Journal 189: 177-182.
Leroy, G & X. Rognon. 2012. Assessing the impact of breeding strategies on inherited disorders and genetic diversity in dogs. Veterinary Journal 194:343-348.
Moore, PF. 1984. Systemic histiocytosis of Bernese Mountain Dogs. Veterinary Pathology 21: 554-563.
Moore, PF & A Rosin. 1986. Malignant histiocytosis of Bernese Mountain Dogs. Veterinary Pathology 23: 1-10.
Ostrander, EA. 2012. Both ends of the leash- the human links to good dogs with bad genes. New England Journal of Medicine 367: 636-346.
Reisner, IR. & KA Houpt. 2005. National survey of owner-directed aggression in English Springer Spaniels. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10: 1594-1603.
Wellman, R. & J. Bennewitz. 2011. Identification and characterization of hierarchical structures in dog breeding schemes, a novel method applied to the Norfolk terrier. Journal of Animal Science 89: 3846-3858.

Оффлайн Alveig

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« Ответ #6 : 01 Март 2014, 12:55:15 »
Старинное видео с националки бродить начало на ФБ (по боковым ссылкам больше.... 83 и 88 год)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1ZzJNp68GI&feature=youtu.be

Оффлайн Лена Беспалова

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« Ответ #7 : 01 Март 2014, 16:10:14 »
Какая историческая вещь! 1983 год. Не то что некоторых маламутов, некоторых людей еще на свете не было. )

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« Ответ #8 : 22 Апрель 2014, 14:53:19 »
Top 10 Cancer Signs to Look for in Your Dog



Everyone knows that the quicker you find and diagnose dog cancer, the better chance you have at fighting if off and prolonging your dog’s life. While annual check-ups at the vet are important for bringing your attention to something you may not have been aware of, a year in the fight against cancer is just too long.

Be proactive and look for signs that your dog, regardless of age, may have cancer. Dr. Kelly Ryan, DVM, at the Animal Medical Center of Mid-America and Humane Society of Missouri has 10 warning signs that dog owners should know and watch for.


Canines are susceptible to the same types of cancers as humans, but they can metastasize at a much faster rate. If you notice any of these symptoms in your pet, schedule an appointment with your veterinarian.

1. Unusual odors. While “dog breath” is common, if you notice unusually foul odors coming from the mouth, nose or rectal area, it may be due to a tumor.

2. Bumps or lumps on or under the skin. Get into the habit of checking your pet’s skin monthly. Don’t forget to check behind ears and around the face. Even if you find a very tiny lump or bump, cancer can grow very quickly. Any new lumps or bumps should not be ignored. If the bumps are bleeding or there is discharge, see a veterinarian immediately.

3. Weight loss. Unless you’ve put your pet on a diet, their weight should remain consistent. Sudden weight loss is a cause for concern.

4. Appetite changes. If your dog has lost interest in meal times, illness is likely the cause. Many health conditions cause appetite loss. Cancer is a very serious one.

5. Lethargy. Learn to tell the difference between a lazy dog and a lethargic one. You should know your dog’s personality fairly well. If he doesn’t seem himself and is spending more and more time sleeping, talk to your veterinarian.

6. Respiratory problems. Dogs can get lung cancer, and some indicators could be coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath after very little exercise.

7. Behavior changes. Has your dog been snapping more than usual? Are they spending more time away from you? They could be in pain. Also pay attention to how they are walking, eating and playing. If you notice any limping or struggling – it’s time to see the vet.

8. Open sores. If your dog has an open sore or other wounds that aren’t healing properly, it could be because of a larger medical issue.

9. Vomiting and diarrhea. If you notice that your dog is vomiting frequently, and/or has diarrhea, you should see your veterinarian. Especially if it’s accompanied by any other of these symptoms. Also check your dog’s abdomen for bloating and distension.

10. Pale gums. Know what a healthy dog’s mouth looks like so you can tell when your canine’s isn’t. Very pale gums could mean blood loss – cancer is one of many illnesses associated with this symptom.

Keeping an eye out for these symptoms could be the early protection your friend needs to add on years to their life!

Please Share.  You Could Save a Dog’s Life!

Read more at http://petcarewiz.com/top-10-cancer-signs-to-look-for-in-your-dog/#BtHbo3KKmfQryirl.99

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« Ответ #9 : 22 Апрель 2014, 15:51:18 »
как же я раньше эту темку не видела, круть!

Оффлайн Alveig

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« Ответ #10 : 13 Май 2014, 11:37:46 »


Canine hip dysplasia genes identified
 Sonja von Brethorst Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit
Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover

 TiHo scientists unravel genes responsible for canine hip dysplasia.

 Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) plays a central role in the selection of breeding animals ever since modern dog breeding began. This inherited condition is common in all dog breeds as well as in mongrels. Researchers at the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation (TiHo), has identified important genetic variants and their interrelated pathways for the pathogenesis of CHD in German Shepherds. The scientists genotyped more than 1000 German Shepherds and screened a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for their association with CHD. Professor Dr. Ottmar Distl and his doctoral student Lena Fels have published their research results in the international online journal PLOS ONE (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096618).

 CHD is caused by a malformation and instability of the hip joints. The first attempts to breed against CHD started at the end of the 1960s due to the severity of this disease and its general significance for the health of dogs. The sole basis of the breeding programs was X-rays of both hip joints. Dogs with significant and severe changes were excluded from breeding. Systematic preventative programs have been established by most dog breeding associations and have become an integral part of the selection programs in purebred dog breeding.

 The genetic mechanisms responsible for CHD involve the formation of cartilage and bone. The metabolic pathways show significant similarities with osteoarthritis and chondrodysplasia in humans. “Research of CHD is of fundamental importance in terms of understanding the processes that can lead to osteoarthritis in humans”, says Distl, head of the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics at TiHo.

 Dog breeding will significantly benefit from the research. “Despite the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs) for CHD, dogs affected with CHD are not uncommon and often unexpected according to the parental EBVs. This presents large problems for dog breeders. Handling of CHD-affected dogs is often difficult and dogs frequently suffer from the painful condition”, says Fels. Using these new results, CHD can be prevented much more effectively. Simulation studies using real population parameters and the new approach have demonstrated its superiority over traditional methods.

 The genome-wide CHD-test is now available at the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics at TiHo and can be provided to all breeders and owners of German Shepherds. Further details can be found on the homepage of the Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics (www.tiho-hannover.de/kliniken-institute/institute/institut-fuer-tierzucht-und-vererbungsforschung/). Similar genome-wide tests have already been developed for Bernese Mountain dogs. The research on Bernese Mountain dogs was published in December 2012 at PLOS ONE (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049782).

 Future work by TiHo geneticists will focus on genome-wide, next-generation sequencing of dog samples. The objective is to sequence the entire genome for a large number of dogs of different breeds in order to detect polymorphisms and structural variants. This will enable us to compare CHD-affected dogs with dogs free of any signs of CHD and that show a very low risk for CHD in their progeny. “Using this approach, we will be in the position to map the CHD-associated mutations and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of CHD. As such, our research will be able to be extended to include many more different dog breeds”, says Distl.

 The original publication
 Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German Shepherd Dogs
 Lena Fels, Ottmar Distl
 PLOS ONE, DOI: 10.137/ journal.pone.0096618

 For specialised queries, please contact:

 Professor Dr. Ottmar Distl
 University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
 Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics
 Tel.: +49 511 953-8875
 ottmar.distl@tiho-hannover.de

Оффлайн Лебедь писанный

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« Ответ #11 : 13 Май 2014, 13:35:23 »
А перевод?  :pardon:

Оффлайн Монахова

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« Ответ #12 : 13 Май 2014, 15:54:26 »
Перевод? гы 8)

перевод в гуглтранслейте, спасибо, что с нами ваще поделились информацией.

Да! и если человеку интересно, думаю найдет способ перевести. Вот если вопросы останутся-тогда можно и помощи попросить, а так... и рыбку съесть и кости сдать-так не бывает :crazy:

и ваще дома фасоль не перебрана, горох не горох, а вы тут вон че :wacko3:

Спасибо за информацию, Полина Санна!

Оффлайн Alveig

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« Ответ #13 : 13 Май 2014, 16:21:29 »
Монахова грубилка!

Сонь, правда времени нет совсем переводить, чтобы читалось нормально...я по-русски то с трудом пишу чтоб понятно было  :D  если в двух словах - остался нам для счастья последний рывок. Немецким овчаркам удалось идентифицировать ген ДТБС. Чуть ране еэто же было сделано для бернцев. Было б крутецки, если бы такая хрень была по нашей тоже породе...... но там цели пойти дальше...общий тест для любой породы. Обосновывют видимо затраты тем, что эта же штука может и людям подойти....хитрюги конечно :)

Оффлайн Лена Беспалова

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« Ответ #14 : 13 Май 2014, 16:27:04 »
Полина, отлично получилось по русски! )
И спасибо за информацию!